understanding drupal 7's render array api

drupal's render API provides great flexibility for themers and module developers to change the rendering of page, and it is the fundamental element of a drupal page rendering.
as the name implies, it is just an associative php array with predefined elements and data structure that conforms to drupal's theme system.
It took me some time to understand how the render APi actually work.Here i want to share my experience in learning about drupal render api with a simple module.

Create a drupal module

First of all, let's create 2 files under sites/all/modules/:


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